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Acute exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of Chinese PFOS alternative F-53B induces oxidative stress in early developing zebrafish

Wu, Yongming, Huang, Jing, Deng, Mi, Jin, Yuanxiang, Yang, Huilin, Liu, Yu, Cao, Qinyan, Mennigen, Jan A., Tu, Wenqing
Chemosphere 2019 v.235 pp. 945-951
Danio rerio, acute exposure, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzymes, aquatic environment, embryo (animal), fish, genes, glutathione, larvae, malondialdehyde, mechanism of action, messenger RNA, oxidative stress, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein content, stress response
6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B), a Chinese PFOS alternative, has recently been identified in the aquatic environment at concentrations similar to or higher than perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Although previous studies have shown that F-53B can trigger oxidative stress in fish, the underlying molecular mechanism is still largely unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of F-53B (0, 0.5, 20 and 200 μg/L) for 5 d to investigate oxidative stress responses and possible molecular mechanisms of action. Our results showed that F-53B accumulated in a concentration-dependent manner in zebrafish larvae. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as the activities, mRNA and protein levels of most of antioxidant enzyme genes involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Nrf2-ARE pathway were significantly reduced. Further in silico study indicated that F-53B binds tightly to PI3K, which may be related to the inhibition of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant functions by F-53B as a PI3K inhibitor. Combining in vivo and in silico studies, we elucidated the effects of F-53B on antioxidant system of zebrafish through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-ARE pathway, which increases our understanding of the molecular mechanism of F-53B on antioxidant responses in fish.