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Anthropogenic contaminants of high concern: Existence in water resources and their adverse effects

López-Pacheco, Itzel Y., Silva-Núñez, Arisbe, Salinas-Salazar, Carmen, Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra, Lizarazo-Holguin, Laura A., Barceló, Damiá, Iqbal, Hafiz M.N., Parra-Saldívar, Roberto
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.690 pp. 1068-1088
acetaminophen, adverse effects, agricultural products, amphetamines, apoptosis, aquatic organisms, atrazine, bioaccumulation, bisphenol A, caffeine, carbendazim, cocaine, cytotoxicity, diclofenac, drinking water treatment, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, fipronil, food industry, genotoxicity, groundwater, humans, ibuprofen, illicit drugs, narcotics, ofloxacin, personal care products, progesterone, rivers, sex ratio, surface water, surfactants, testosterone, triclosan, wastewater treatment, water reservoirs
Existence of anthropogenic contaminants (ACs) in different environmental matrices is a serious and unresolved concern. For instance, ACs from different sectors, such as industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical, are found in water bodies with considerable endocrine disruptors potency and can damage the biotic components of the environment. The continuous ACs exposure can cause cellular toxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and alterations in sex ratios in human beings. Whereas, aquatic organisms show bioaccumulation, trophic chains, and biomagnification of ACs through different entry route. These problems have been found in many countries around the globe, making them a worldwide concern. ACs have been found in different environmental matrices, such as water reservoirs for human consumption, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), groundwaters, surface waters, rivers, and seas, which demonstrate their free movement within the environment in an uncontrolled manner. This work provides a detailed overview of ACs occurrence in water bodies along with their toxicological effect on living organisms. The literature data reported between 2017 and 2018 is compiled following inclusion-exclusion criteria, and the obtained information was mapped as per type and source of ACs. The most important ACs are pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, ofloxacin, acetaminophen, progesterone ranitidine, and testosterone), agricultural products or pesticides (atrazine, carbendazim, fipronil), narcotics and illegal drugs (amphetamines, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine), food industry derivatives (bisphenol A, and caffeine), and personal care products (triclosan, and other related surfactants). Considering this threatening issue, robust detection and removal strategies must be considered in the design of WWTPs and DWTPs.