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Bacteriological quality of bottled water obtained from Mexico City small water purification plants: Incidence and identification of potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria species
- Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco, Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura, Villegas-Martínez, Daniel, Leon-Montes, Nancy, Salas-Rangel, Laura P., Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra, Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel, Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia, Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth, Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto
- International journal of food microbiology 2019 v.306 pp. 108260
- bottled water, coliform bacteria, fecal bacteria, genes, genetic markers, guidelines, microbiological quality, monitoring, water purification, water utilities, Mexico
- The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of bottled water samples obtained from small purification plants located in Mexico City and to identify potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species found in these samples. All 111 samples analyzed were positive for aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) and 46 (41.4%) did not comply with Mexico's Official Guidelines. Sixty-nine (62.1%) and 23 (20.7%) water samples were positive for total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC), respectively. A total of 81 (72.9%) of the water samples exceeded the maximum allowed limit stipulated in the guideline. Thirty-three (29.7%) of the purified water samples were positive for NTM, being recovered a total of 40 isolates. These NTM isolates were identified using three molecular markers (hsp65, rrs and rpoB genes) which corresponded to the fast-growing mycobacteria M. chelonae (n = 12), M. porcinum (n = 8), M. senegalense (n = 5), M. abscessus (n = 4), M. septicum (n = 4), M. wolinskyi (n = 3), M. mucogenicum (n = 2), M. fortuitum (n = 1) and M. sp. (n = 1). In seven purified water samples, two different NTM species were isolated simultaneously. Overall, these results showed that most of the purified bottled water samples analyzed in this study had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. Our data could hasten health authorities to intensify efforts in the routine monitoring of activities in the purified bottled water industry in order to supply safe and healthy water to the public.