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Utilization of herpesviridae as recombinant viral vectors in vaccine development against animal pathogens

Kamel, Mohamed, El-Sayed, Amr
Virus research 2019 v.270 pp. 197648
CRISPR-Cas systems, DNA, Herpesviridae, animal diseases, animal pathogens, antigens, bacterial artificial chromosomes, gene editing, humoral immunity, mutagenesis, recombinant vaccines, vaccine development, viruses
Throughout the past few decades, numerous viral species have been generated as vaccine vectors. Every viral vector has its own distinct characteristics. For example, the family herpesviridae encompasses several viruses that have medical and veterinary importance. Attenuated herpesviruses are developed as vectors to convey heterologous immunogens targeting several serious and crucial pathogens. Some of these vectors have already been licensed for use in the veterinary field. One of their prominent features is their capability to accommodate large amount of foreign DNA, and to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. A better understanding of vector-host interaction builds up a robust foundation for the future development of herpesviruses-based vectors. At the time, many molecular tools are applied to enable the generation of herpesvirus-based recombinant vaccine vectors such as BAC technology, homologous and two-step en passant mutagenesis, codon optimization, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This review article highlights the most important techniques applied in constructing recombinant herpesviruses vectors, advantages and disadvantages of each recombinant herpesvirus vector, and the most recent research regarding their use to control major animal diseases.