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An epidemiological investigation of porcine circovirus 3 infection in dogs in the Guangxi Province from 2015 to 2017, China

Sun, Wenchao, Wang, Wei, Xin, Jialiang, Cao, Liang, Zhuang, Xinyu, Zhang, Cong, Zhu, Yilong, Zhang, He, Qin, Yuhao, Du, Qian, Han, Zhixiao, Lu, Huijun, Zheng, Ming, Jin, Ningyi
Virus research 2019 v.270 pp. 197663
Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-3, capsid, dog diseases, dogs, epidemiological studies, genes, genotype, mixed infection, nucleotide sequences, pathogenesis, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence alignment, seroprevalence, swine, viruses, China
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is an emerging circovirus species associated with several diseases. The study aimed to investigate the frequency of porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) and its coinfection with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) in dogs in the Guangxi province from 2015 to 2017, China, and to examine the genome diversity of PCV3. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing, 96 of 406 (23.6%)samples were positive for PCV3, 38 out of 406 (9.4%) samples were coinfected with both PCV3 and CPV-2. The CPV-positive rate was significantly higher in the PCV3-positive samples than in the non-PCV3 samples, and the difference was extremely significant (P < 0.01). The complete genome (n=4) and ten capsid genes (n=10) of PCV3 were sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment results showed that these sequences shared 98.5–100% nucleotide similarity with the reference genome sequence and 97.5–100% nucleotide similarity with the reference capsid gene sequence. PCV3 was classified into two different genotypes, according to phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome. These strains were clustered in PCV3a, showing a close relationship with PCV3-US/SD2016. Surprisingly, we separately analyzed these PCV3 strains from the Guangxi province and found that the dog and pig PCV3 are from different branches. In summary, this was the first seroprevalence and genetic investigation of PCV3 in dogs in the Guangxi province, China, and the first complete genome PCV3 from dogs obtained in the world. The results provide insights into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this important virus.