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Exogenous Ca2+ mitigates the toxic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on phagocytosis, cell viability, and apoptosis in haemocytes of a marine bivalve mollusk, Tegillarca granosa
- Guan, Xiaofan, Tang, Yu, Zha, Shanjie, Han, Yu, Shi, Wei, Ren, Peng, Yan, Maocang, Pan, Qicun, Hu, Yuan, Fang, Jun, Zhang, Jiongming, Liu, Guangxu
- Environmental pollution 2019 v.252 pp. 1764-1771
- Tegillarca granosa, apoptosis, calcium, calcium signaling, calmodulin, caspase-3, caspase-6, cell viability, clams, hemocytes, immunotoxicity, nanoparticles, phagocytosis, titanium dioxide
- Phagocytosis suppression induced by nanoparticles (NPs) exposure is increasingly reported in marine species. However, the mechanisms underlying this impact remain poorly understood. In order to improve our present understanding of the immunotoxicity of NPs, acute (96 h) TiO2 NP exposure and rescue trials via exogenous supply of Ca2+ were performed in the blood clam, Tegillarca granosa. The results show that the phagocytosis rate, cell viability, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration of haemocytes were significantly suppressed, whereas the intracellular ROS concentration of haemocytes significantly increased upon nTiO2 exposure. Exposure to nTiO2 also led to the significant downregulation of Caspase-3, Caspase-6, apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X, calmodulin kinase II, and calmodulin kinase kinase II. Furthermore, the toxic impacts of nTiO2 were partially mitigated by the addition of exogenous Ca2+, as indicated by the recovery tendency in almost all the measured parameters. The present study indicates that Ca2+ signaling could be one of the key pathways through which nTiO2 attacks phagocytosis.