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Levelized energy and exergy costings per life cycle assessment of a combined cooling, heating, power and tourism system of the San Kamphaeng hot spring, Thailand
- Chaiyat, Nattaporn, Chaongew, Sutham, Ondokmai, Panisa, Makarkard, Pran
- Renewable energy 2020 v.146 pp. 828-842
- absorption, carbon dioxide, climate change, cooling, drying, economic impact, energy costs, exergy, fossils, heat, hot springs, iron, life cycle assessment, models, oils, renewable energy sources, tourism, toxicity, Thailand
- A combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation system in the San Kamphaeng hot spring, Thailand, is investigated by using a new parameter of levelized energy and exergy costings per life cycle assessment (LCA). The microscale CCHP system, which comprises a 10 kW organic Rankine cycle, a 15 kW absorption unit and a 20 kW centralized drying room, were tested and analyzed. The net output energy and exergy of the CCHP system were found to have 32.62 kWh and 6.98 kWh at average efficiencies of 11.6% and 11.2%, respectively. In the environmental results, the 4 main impacts were essentially driven from the climate change of 3.90 kg CO2 eq/kJ, human toxicity of 2.96 kg 1,4 DB eq/kJ, metal depletion of 1.20 kg Fe eq/kJ and fossil depletion of 6.47E-01 kg oil eq/kJ. The LCA single score could be integrated as 0.026 Pt. In the economic impact, the levelized energy and exergy costings were 0.069 USD/kWh and 0.323 USD/kWh, respectively. Finally, in the new 3E and 4E models (3,4E-Chaiyat models), the levelized energy and exergy costings per life cycle assessment were found to be approximately 0.002 USD⋅Pt/kWh2 and 0.008 USD⋅Pt/kWh2, respectively.