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Structural characterisation and immunomodulatory activity of a polysaccharide isolated from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) root residues

Hu, Weicheng, Jiang, Yunyao, Xue, Qi, Sun, Fengting, Zhang, Jianmei, Zhou, Jing, Niu, Zhiqiang, Li, Qiuting, Li, Fu, Shen, Ting
Journal of functional foods 2019 v.60 pp. 103457
IKappaB kinase, Nelumbo nucifera, dietary supplements, immune response, immunomodulators, immunosuppression, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, mice, mitogen-activated protein kinase, moieties, molecular weight, neoplasms, nitric oxide, phosphorylation, polysaccharides, root residues, secretion, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, water solubility
An active water-soluble lotus root polysaccharide (LRP) with average molecular weight of 1.24 × 104 Da was purified from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) root residues. The structure of LRP was determined to be α-D-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranosyl moieties with non-reducing terminal α-D-Glcp at O-6 as branches approximately every six residues. An immunological activity assay indicated that LRP significantly promoted the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). LRP induced nuclear translocation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB. Intriguingly, LRP remarkably increased phosphorylation of upstream signalling molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, IκBα, Akt, and p85. Moreover, LRP promoted the secretion of TNF-α and interleukin-2 in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive mice. Collectively, these results suggest that LRP can improve immunity by enhancing immune function both in vitro and in vivo and this substance might be explored as an immunomodulatory agent for use in dietary supplements.