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Prevalence, geographic distribution and phylogenetic relationships among cryptic species of Plasmopara viticola in grape‐producing regions of Georgia and Florida, USA

Hong, Cheng‐Fang, Brewer, Marin T., Brannen, Phillip M., Scherm, Harald
Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 2019 v.167 no.7-8 pp. 422-429
Plasmopara viticola, Vitis vinifera, actin, comparative study, cryptic species, downy mildew, geographical distribution, grapes, host range, hybrids, mountains, phylogeny, ribosomal DNA, sequence analysis, temperature, tubulin, viticulture, Florida, Georgia
Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape downy mildew pathogen, Plasmopara viticola, revealed five cryptic species in eastern North America that differed in their host range and geographic distribution. Preliminary comparative studies also documented differences in temperature responses during infection between certain cryptic species, indicating the biological relevance of knowing which cryptic species of the pathogen are present in a given region. However, limited information is available regarding the presence, prevalence and dynamics of cryptic species of P. viticola in the southeastern United States. Here, 301 P. viticola isolates obtained from cultivated grape species in five distinct grape‐growing regions of Georgia and Florida were subjected to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis and multilocus sequencing (internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA, actin and β‐tubulin) to identify cryptic species and infer phylogenetic relationships. Three cryptic species, P. viticola clade aestivalis (Pva), clade vinifera (Pvv) and clade vulpina (Pvu), were identified in Georgia, whereas two, Pva and Pvv, were found in Florida; all three cryptic species are reported here for the first time in Georgia, whereas Pva is reported for the first time in Florida. Pva was the most prevalent cryptic species (72.1% of isolates) and was distributed widely from the North Georgia Mountains to Mid‐Florida, whereas Pvv (27.2%) and Pvu (0.7%) were found only in the Coastal Plain region of the two states. Interestingly, Pvu was obtained from French American hybrid Blanc du Bois and could be subcultured on Vitis vinifera Chardonnay, suggesting a broader host range than only the wild species Vitis vulpina reported previously.