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Occurrence and management of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea on tomato from greenhouses in Hebei, China
- Zhao, Jianjiang, Bi, Qiuyan, Wu, Jie, Lu, Fen, Han, Xiuying, Wang, Wenqiao
- Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 2019 v.167 no.7-8 pp. 413-421
- Botrytis cinerea, biopesticides, boscalid, carbendazim, cities, diethofencarb, disease control, field experimentation, fungi, fungicide resistance, gray mold, greenhouses, iprodione, mechanism of action, phenotype, pyrimethanil, resistance management, tomatoes, China
- Grey mould, caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most devastating tomato diseases, and the control of this disease is mainly by the application of chemicals. In this study, 512 isolates of B. cinerea were collected from tomato grown in greenhouses at 10 locations in 10 cities of Hebei Province from 2011 to 2016 and tested for their sensitivities to carbendazim (Car), diethofencarb (Die), iprodione (Ipr) and pyrimethanil (Pyr). Of these tested isolates, 95.7%, 95.2%, 31.6% and 89.4% were resistant to Car, Die, Ipr and Pyr, respectively. There were nine fungicide‐resistant phenotypes in the tested isolates. CarᴿPyrᴿDieᴿIPRS and CarᴿPyrᴿDieᴿIPRᴿ were the most common phenotypes, accounting for 59.6%, and 31.1% of the tested isolates, respectively. The field trials showed that the control efficacies (CE) of carbendazim + diethofencarb (WP, 25% + 25%), pyrimethanil (EC, 40%) and iprodione (WP, 50%) at the recommended doses were 22.75%–29.23%, 58.44%–64.19% and 61.02%–65.17%, respectively, significantly lower than those of boscalid (WG, 50%) and pyrisoxazole (EC, 25%). The resistance management trial conducted from 2015 to 2017 indicated that the CE of tomato grey mould in the experimental fields was higher than 90% and the sensitivity to carbendazim, diethofencarb and pyrimethanil of B. cinerea isolates from the experimental fields increased on a yearly basis. These results showed that the frequency of resistance to Car, Die, Ipr and Pyr was high, and these four fungicides could not effectively control tomato grey mould. Tomato grey mould could be controlled by using biopesticides and newly synthesized fungicides with different modes of action. Our findings would be useful in designing and implementing fungicide resistance management spray programmes for the control of tomato grey mould.