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In vitro methionine supplementation during lipopolysaccharide stimulation modulates immunometabolic gene network expression in isolated polymorphonuclear cells from lactating Holstein cows

Vailati-Riboni, M., Xu, T., Qadir, B., Bucktrout, R., Parys, C., Loor, J.J.
Journal of dairy science 2019 v.102 no.9 pp. 8343-8351
CXCR1 receptor, Holstein, analysis of variance, blood, cattle feeds, corn, dairy cows, diet, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, glucocorticoid receptors, glutathione, glutathione-disulfide reductase, immune system, inflammation, interleukin-1, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, lactating females, limiting amino acids, lipopolysaccharides, lysine, lysozyme, messenger RNA, metabolism, methionine, milk, milk production, oxidative stress, pathogens, superoxide dismutase, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factors
Methionine (Met) is one of the 2 most limiting amino acids for milk production in dairy cow diets. The accepted “ideal” ratio of lysine (Lys) to Met (L:M) when formulating diets is 3:1. However, blood from cows fed corn silage-based diets without supplemental rumen-protected Met averages approximately 3.6:1 L:M. Recent in vivo research on cattle immunonutrition has revealed that the immune system could benefit from greater Met supply. To study more closely the effects of different L:M ratios, blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) were isolated from 5 Holstein cows in mid-lactation (238 ± 20 d postpartum, 33.8 ± 3.8 kg of milk/d; mean ± SD). The PMN were incubated at 3 different levels of L:M (3.6:1, 2.9:1, or 2.4:1) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at either 0 or 50 μg/mL for 2 h at 37°C. Target genes were associated with cytokines, pathogen recognition, nuclear receptors, killing mechanisms, and Met and glutathione metabolism. Data were subjected to ANOVA using PROC MIXED in SAS, with L:M, LPS, and their interaction as fixed effects. Stimulation with LPS upregulated genes related to cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL10 and IL6) and nuclear receptors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB1) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), and downregulated the mRNA abundance of chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1), lysozyme (LYZ) and glutathione reductase (GSR). A linear decrease was observed in the mRNA abundance of TNF when L:M was decreased. A similar response was observed for interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and NFKB1 abundance in cells stimulated with LPS (linear effect). A linear increase of LYZ mRNA expression as L:M decreased was detected in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, a decrease in L:M led to a linear decrease of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mRNA abundance in cells challenged with LPS. Overall, LPS challenge triggered the activation of isolated PMN from mid-lactation cows. However, data suggest the use of a shorter incubation time to capture the peak response and not the resolution of the inflammatory response as in the present study. Our results indicate a possible involvement of Met in modulating PMN inflammatory and oxidative stress status and in helping the resolution of inflammation after initial stimulation.