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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives as type III secretion system inhibitors against Xanthomonas oryzae

Tao, Hui, Tian, Hao, Jiang, Shan, Xiang, Xuwen, Lin, Yinuo, Ahmed, Wasim, Tang, Riyuan, Cui, Zi-Ning
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.160 pp. 87-94
Gram-negative bacteria, Oryza sativa, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, antibiotics, bacterial growth, bioassays, carboxylic acids, chemical derivatives, disease severity, drug development, greenhouse experimentation, hypersensitive response, leaf blight, messenger RNA, multigene family, pathogens, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rice, screening, thiazoles, type III secretion system, virulence, virulent strains
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) infection directly leads to a severe disease known as leaf blight, which is a major cause of yield loss of rice. Use of traditional bactericides has resulted in severe resistance in pathogenic bacteria. A new approach screening compounds that target the virulence factors rather than killing bacterial pathogens is imperative. In gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is a conserved and significant virulence factor considered as a target for drug development. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a new series of 5-phenyl-2-furan carboxylic acid derivatives stitched with 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole. Bioassays revealed that the title candidates attenuated the hypersensitive response through suppressing the promoter activity of a harpin gene hpa1 without affecting bacterial growth. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated reduced the expression of several genes associated with T3SS, when title compounds were applied. Additionally, hrp gene cluster members, including hrpG and hrpX, had reduced mRNA levels. In vivo greenhouse tests showed that candidate compounds could alleviate the effects of Xoo infection in rice (Oryza sativa) and possess better protective activity against rice bacterial leaf blight than bismerthiazol and thiodiazole copper. All tested compounds were safe to rice. This work suggests there are new safe options for Xoo control in rice from these 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.