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The impact of low and high doses of acrylamide on the intramural neurons of the porcine ileum

Palus, Katarzyna, Obremski, Kazimierz, Bulc, Michał, Całka, Jarosław
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.132 pp. 110673
Danish Landrace, acceptable daily intake, acetylcholine, acrylamides, calcitonin gene-related peptide, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, females, gelatin, ileum, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, juveniles, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, neurons, neurotoxicity, phenotype, substance P, swine, transporters, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
The present study was designed to assess the influence of acrylamide supplementation, in tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose and a dose ten times higher than TDI, on the neurochemical phenotype of the ENS neurons and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines in the wall of the porcine ileum. The study was performed on 15 juvenile female Danish Landrace pigs, divided into three groups: C group- animals receiving empty gelatine capsules, LD group- animals receiving capsules with the TDI dose (0.5 μg/kg b.w./day) of acrylamide and HD group- animals receiving acrylamide in a dose ten times higher than the TDI (5 μg/kg b.w./day) in a morning meal for 28 days. It was established that supplementation of acrylamide led to an increase in substance P (SP)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, galanin (GAL)- and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons as well as a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) -like immunoreactivity in all types of ileum intramural plexuses. Moreover, using ELISA method, an increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α) was noted in the ileum wall. The results suggest that SP, CGRP, GAL, nNOS and VACHT participate in the regulation of inflammatory conditions induced by acrylamide supplementation.