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Provitamin A carotenoids in table olives according to processing styles, cultivars, and commercial presentations

López, Antonio, Montaño, Alfredo, Garrido, Antonio
European food research & technology 2005 v.221 no.3-4 pp. 406-411
alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, carrots, cultivars, diet, industry, nutrition information, nutrition labeling, nutritionists, olives, oxidation
The concentration of provitamin A carotenoids in table olives was determined. Only β-carotene was found in all commercial presentations. α-carotene was also present in final products containing carrots. Concentrations of β-carotene, referring to 100 g edible portion, ranged from an average of 197 to 1,387 μg in green olives, from 37 to 726 μg in directly brined olives and from 39 to 333 in ripe (darkened by oxidation) olives. Thus, some commercial presentations of table olives can be considered reasonable sources of provitamin A. Several groups were formed within elaboration styles and cultivars, according to commercial presentations. Their averages and other statistical estimations are also given. These results may be used by the industry as a source of information for nutritional labelling or by nutritionists to estimate provitamin A intakes in diets that include table olives.