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Dietary sources of salt intake in adults and older people: a population-based study in a Brazilian town

Perin, Milena Sia, Cornélio, Marilia Estevam, Oliveira, Henrique Ceretta, São-João, Thais Moreira, Rhéaume, Caroline, Gallani, Maria-Cecília Bueno Jayme
Public health nutrition 2019 v.22 no.8 pp. 1388-1397
body mass index, cooking, cross-sectional studies, diet recall, dietary nutrient sources, elderly, excretion, foods, males, men, questionnaires, regression analysis, sodium, waist circumference, women, Brazil
To assess salt intake and its dietary sources using biochemical and self-report methods and to characterize salt intake according to sociodemographic and disease-related variables in a sample of the Brazilian population. Population-based cross-sectional survey. Salt intake was assessed by biochemical (24 h urinary Na excretion) and self-report methods (sodium FFQ, 24 h dietary recall, seasoned-salt questionnaire, discretionary-salt questionnaire and total reported salt intake). Adults and older people (n 517) aged 20–80 years, living in Artur Nogueira, São Paulo, Brazil. Mean salt intake based on 24 h urinary Na excretion and total reported salt intake was 10·5 and 11·0 g/d, respectively; both measures were significantly correlated. Discretionary salt and seasoned salt were the most important sources of salt intake (68·2 %). Men in the study consumed more salt than women as estimated by 24 h urinary Na excretion (11·7 v. 9·6 g salt/d; P<0·0001). Participants known to be hypertensive added more salt to their meals but consumed less salty ultra-processed foods. Waist circumference in both sexes and BMI were positively correlated with salt intake estimated by 24 h urinary Na excretion. In addition, regression analysis revealed that being a young male or having a high waist circumference was a predictor of higher salt intake. Salt intake in this population was well above the recommended amount. The main source of salt intake came from salt added during cooking. Salt intake varied according to sex and waist circumference.