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Cellulose nanocrystals as promising adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes
- Batmaz, Rasim, Mohammed, Nishil, Zaman, Masuduz, Minhas, Gagan, Berry, Richard M., Tam, Kam C.
- Cellulose 2014 v.21 no.3 pp. 1655-1665
- acid hydrolysis, adsorbents, adsorption, cellulose, cellulosic fibers, dyes, energy, entropy, ionic strength, nanocrystals, pH, sorption isotherms, sulfuric acid, temperature
- Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) prepared from cellulose fibre via sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, ionic strength, initial dye concentration were studied to optimize the conditions for the maximum adsorption of dye. Adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, where the Langmuir model better described the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity was 118 mg dye/g CNC at 25 °C and pH 9. Calculated thermodynamic parameters, such as free energy change (ΔG = −20.8 kJ/mol), enthalpy change (ΔH = −3.45 kJ/mol), and entropy change (ΔS = 0.58 kJ/mol K) indicates that MB adsorption on CNCs is a spontaneous exothermic process. Tunability of the adsorption capacity by surface modification of CNCs was shown by oxidizing the primary hydroxyl groups on the CNC surface with TEMPO reagent and the adsorption capacity was increased from 118 to 769 mg dye/g CNC.