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Coupling the Modified Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and Pixel-Swapping Methods for Improving Subpixel Water Mapping: Application to the Pearl River Delta, China

Liu, Xulong, Deng, Ruru, Xu, Jianhui, Zhang, Feifei
Water 2017 v.9 no.9
Landsat, algorithms, disasters, flooded conditions, monitoring, remote sensing, river deltas, rivers, China
High-resolution water mapping with remotely sensed data is essential to monitoring of rainstorm waterlogging and flood disasters. In this study, a modified linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) method is proposed to extract high-precision water fraction maps. In the modified LSMA, the pure water and mixed water-land pixels, which are extracted by the Otsu method and a morphological dilation operation, are used to improve the accuracy of water fractions. The modified LSMA is applied to the 18 October 2015 Landsat 8 OLI image of the Pearl River Delta for the extraction of water fractions. Based on the water fraction maps, a modified subpixel mapping method (MSWM) based on a pixel-swapping algorithm is proposed for obtaining the spatial distribution information of water at subpixel scale. The MSWM includes two steps in subpixel water mapping. The MSWM considers the inter-subpixel/pixel and intra-subpixel/subpixel spatial attractions. Subpixel water mapping is first implemented with the inter-subpixel/pixel spatial attractions, which are estimated using the distance between a given subpixel and its surrounding pixels and the water fractions of the surrounding pixels. Based on the initialized subpixel water mapping results, the final subpixel water maps are determined by a modified pixel-swapping algorithm, in which the intra-subpixel/subpixel spatial attractions are estimated using the initialized subpixel water maps and an inverse-distance weighted function of the current subpixel at the centre of a moving window with its surrounding subpixels within the window. The subpixel water mapping performance of the MSWM is compared with that of subpixel mapping for linear objects (SPM<inf>L</inf>) and that of the subpixel/pixel spatial attraction model (SPSAM) using the GF-1 reference image from 20 October 2015. The experimental results show that the MSWM shows better subpixel water mapping performance and obtains more details than SPM<inf>L</inf> and SPSAM, as it has the largest overall accuracy values and Kappa coefficients. Furthermore, the MSWM can significantly eliminate the phenomenon of jagged edges and has smooth continuous edges.