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Spatial Distribution, Adsorption/Release Characteristics, and Environment Influence of Phosphorus on Sediment in Reservoir

Wang, Tianxiang, Liu, Jianwei, Xu, Shiguo, Qin, Guoshuai, Sun, Ya, Wang, Fuqiang
Water 2017 v.9 no.9
adsorption, aluminum, dams (hydrology), environmental factors, inorganic phosphorus, iron, manganese oxides, pollutants, river valleys, sediment contamination, sediments, sorption isotherms, total phosphorus, water quality
Sediment gradually accumulates at the bottom of reservoirs after decades of running. To explore the influences of sediments on the water quality of reservoirs, the spatial distribution, adsorption/release characteristics, and environment influence of sediment pollutants should be analyzed. In this paper, the spatial distributions of phosphorus (P) and P fractions in the Biliuhe reservoir (river valley reservoirs) sediments were investigated. The adsorption and release characteristics of sediments P were studied in the experiment, while its environmental influence was analyzed too. The results indicate that the concentration of P in sediments was higher at the dam and the Zhongling site, while lower at other entrances of the reservoir and the smallest in the water-level fluctuating zone. Total Phosphorus (TP) varied from 355.46 to 764.57 mg/kg. Inorganic Phosphorus (IP) was the main form of TP in sediments, making up a proportion of 56–75%, while the correlation coefficient of P bound to Al, Fe, and Mn oxides was 0.922. Hydroxide (Fe/Al-P) was the main form of IP, which accounted for 46–83% with a correlation coefficient of 0.888. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir model was between 714.29 and 3333.33 mg/kg. The adsorption efficiency obtained by the Freundlich model was within the range of 0.40–1.42, which indicated that P adsorption was more difficult in the water-level fluctuating zone. The critical adsorption and release concentration range was 0.1–0.2 mg/L for the majority of the sampling points. The amount of P released in 24 h (the initial concentration of TP in the overlying water was 0 mg/L) accounted for 1.15–4.16% of TP in sediments, which was higher than the average concentration in the reservoir. It is concluded that the sediment is the potential pollution source. The relationship between the change of environmental factors and the release of sediment contaminants should be considered in the future.