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Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediments of Reservoirs in the Lowland Area of Western Poland: Concentrations, Distribution, Sources and Ecological Risk
- Sojka, Mariusz, Jaskuła, Joanna, Siepak, Marcin
- Water 2018 v.11 no.1
- cadmium, chromium, cluster analysis, copper, dams (hydrology), heavy metals, hydrology, lead, nickel, organic matter, pollution load, principal component analysis, risk, sand fraction, sediment contamination, silt, toxicity, watersheds, zinc, Poland
- The paper presents the results of a study of heavy metals (HMs) concentrations in six retention reservoirs located in the lowland area of western Poland. The objectives of this study were to analyze the Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations, assess contamination and ecological risk, analyze the spatial variability of HM concentrations and identify potential sources and factors determining the concentration and spatial distribution. The bottom sediment pollution by HMs was assessed on the basis of the index of geo-accumulation (I<inf>geo</inf>), enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and metal pollution index (MPI). To assess the ecological risk associated with multiple HMs, the mean probable effect concentration (PEC) quotient (Q<inf>m-PEC</inf>) and the toxic risk index (TRI) were used. In order to determine the similarities and differences between sampling sites in regard to the HM concentration, cluster analysis (CA) was applied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to assess the impact of grain size, total organic matter (TOM) content and sampling site location on HM spatial distribution. Additionally, PCA was used to assess the impact of catchment, reservoir characteristics and hydrological conditions. The values of I<inf>geo</inf>, EF, MPI and PLI show that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb mainly originate from geogenic sources. In contrast, Zn concentrations come from point sources related to agriculture. The mean PEC quotient (Q<inf>m-PEC</inf>) and TRI value show that the greatest ecological risk occurred at the inlet to the reservoir and near the dam. The analysis showed that the HMs concentration depends on silt and sand content. However, the Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations are associated with TOM as well. The relationship between individual HMs and silt was stronger than with TOM. The PCA results indicate that HMs with the exception of Zn originate from geogenic sources—weathering of rock material. However, the Ni concentration may additionally depend on road traffic. The results show that a reservoir with more frequent water exchange has higher HMs concentrations, whereas the Zn concentration in bottom sediments is associated with agricultural point sources.