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Influence of Emulsification Technique and Wall Composition on Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil Microcapsules Produced by Spray Drying

Ramakrishnan, S., Ferrando, M., Aceña-Muñoz, L., Mestres, M., De Lamo-Castellví, S., Güell, C.
Food and bioprocess technology 2014 v.7 no.7 pp. 1959-1972
droplet size, emulsifying, emulsions, encapsulation, fish oils, homogenization, lipid content, oxidation, oxidative stability, sodium caseinate, spray drying, whey protein
Encapsulation of fish oil is an effective way to protect it against oxidation and masking its fishy odor. One of the possible ways to produce fish oil microcapsules is to produce an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion followed by spray drying. This study compares the production of the O/W emulsion by mechanical homogenization (rotor–stator) with membrane emulsification and examines the effect of the type and amount of wall material added before drying. The membrane emulsification process selected for the emulsion production is premix membrane emulsification (ME), which consists of the production of a coarse emulsion by mechanical means followed by droplet breakup when the coarse emulsion is forced through a membrane. The emulsions produced had an oil load of 10 and 20 % and were stabilized using whey protein (isolate and hydrolyzate at 1 or 10 %) and sodium caseinate with concentrations of 2 and 10 %. Regarding the material used to build the microcapsule wall, whey protein, maltodextrin, or combinations of them were used at three different oil/wall ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3). The results clearly show that premix ME is a suitable technology for producing O/W emulsions stabilized with proteins, which have a smaller droplet size and are more monodisperse than those produced by rotor–stator emulsification. However, protein concentrations of 10 % are required to reduce the droplet size down to 2–3 μm. Small and monodisperse emulsions have been found to produce microcapsules with lower surface oil content, which increases oil encapsulation efficiency and presents lower levels of oxidation during storage at 30 °C. Of all the possible combinations studied, the one with the highest oil encapsulation efficiency is the production of a 20 % O/W emulsion stabilized with 10 % sodium caseinate followed by the addition of 50 % maltodextrin and drying.