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Assessing Anticancer Potential of Blueberry Flavonoids, Quercetin, Kaempferol, and Gentisic Acid, Through Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Parameters on HCT-116 Cells
- Ebru Demirel Sezer, Latife Merve Oktay, Elif Karadadaş, Hikmet Memmedov, Nur Selvi Gunel, Eser Sözmen
- Journal of medicinal food 2019 v.22 no.11 pp. 1118-1126
- 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, Vaccinium myrtillus, antineoplastic activity, antineoplastic agents, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, apoptosis, blueberries, cytotoxicity, diet, flow cytometry, fruit extracts, kaempferol, liquid chromatography, neoplasms, oxidants, oxidative stress, polyphenols, protein composition, protein microarrays, proteins, quercetin, tandem mass spectrometry, therapeutics
- In recent years, natural products gained popularity with their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects mediated by chemical compounds within their composition. Study results offering them as palliative therapy options in cancer or as anticancer agents with high levels of cytotoxicity brought a new approach to combine cancer treatment protocols with these products. From a different perspective, edible types of these products are suggested in daily diets due to their potential cancer preventive effects. Our preliminary work was on blueberry extracts (Vaccinium myrtillus) as a main representative of these natural products, and the contents of the extracts were analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) to reveal the composition and distribution of polyphenolic compounds within. The most abundant polyphenols detected in V. myrtillus extracts were quercetin, kaempferol, and a phenolic acid, gentisic acid (GA). The compounds were further evaluated on treated HCT-116 cells for their potential anticancer effects by measuring total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels for evaluation of oxidative stress and through protein array analysis and flow cytometric analysis for evaluation of apoptosis. In analysis of oxidative stress parameters, reduced total oxidant levels and reduced oxidative stress index levels were found in cells treated with the compounds in comparison with untreated cells. In apoptosis-related protein profiles, at least twofold reduction in various apoptotic proteins was observed after quercetin and kaempferol treatment, whereas a different profile was observed for GA. Overall, results of this study showed that quercetin and kaempferol have strong cytotoxic, antioxidant, and apoptotic effects, although GA is mostly effective as an antioxidant polyphenol on HCT-116 cells.