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Genetic analyses of causal genes of albinism (white fruiting body) in Grifola frondosa
- Kawaguchi, Nobuhisa, Hayashi, Mirai, Chen, Fu-Chia, Shimomura, Norihiro, Yamaguchi, Takeshi, Aimi, Tadanori
- Journal of wood science 2019 v.65 no.1 pp. 32
- Grifola frondosa, albino, backcrossing, color, enzymes, frameshift mutation, fruiting bodies, genes, genetic analysis, genotype, mushrooms, mutants, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, polymerase chain reaction, translation (genetics)
- The tyrosinase 2 gene (tyr2) from two compatible strains of Grifola frondosa, the albino-type monokaryon strain IM-WM1-25 and the wild-type monokaryon strain IM-BM11-P21, were amplified and characterized (designated tyr2⁻Δ²⁵ and tyr2⁺, respectively). A single base deletion in the coding region of tyr2⁻Δ²⁵ from IM-WM1-25 was discovered, and this mutation is predicted to cause a frame-shift in translation, yielding inactive protein tyrosinase protein 2 (TYR2). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs were designed to detect normal tyr2⁺ and mutant tyr2⁻Δ²⁵, and then the tyr2 genotype of F1 progenies, which was obtained from basidiospore isolation of IM-BM11-P21 × IM-WM1-25 (tyr⁺ × tyr2⁻Δ²⁵) strain, was analyzed. Back-crossing (F1 progenies × IM-WM1-25) was performed and fruiting body colors of the crossed strains were analyzed. The fruiting bodies of all crossed strains were white and beige, and the corresponding genotypes were tyr2⁻Δ²⁵ × tyr2⁻Δ²⁵ and tyr⁺ × tyr2⁻Δ²⁵. These results suggest that the causal gene of the albino mutation is tyr2 and this study provides a new strategy for the breeding of albino mushrooms belonging to G. frondosa.