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Walnut core-like hollow carbon micro/nanospheres supported SnOx@C composite for high performance lithium-ion battery anode

Tian, Qinghua, Chen, Yanbin, Chen, Fengtao, Chen, Jizhang, Yang, Li
Journal of colloid and interface science 2019 v.554 pp. 424-432
anodes, carbon, coatings, deformation, electrochemistry, electrons, glucose, grinding, ions, lithium batteries, longevity, nanoparticles, nanospheres, stress tolerance, tin dioxide, tin monoxide, walnuts
Herein, to cope with the volume variation problem of SnO2 anodes for lithium-ion batteries, individual walnut core-like hollow carbon micro/nanospheres (WCSs) have been prepared to be used as a supporting skeleton to form WCSs@SnOx@C composite. In WCSs@SnOx@C the SnOx (SnO2 with relatively small amounts of SnO) nanoparticles are well sandwiched between inner WCSs supporting skeleton and outmost glucose derived carbon anchoring coating. It is suggested that the characteristic composite construction has three key contributions to the electrochemical performance of WCSs@SnOx@C composite: firstly, with structural characteristics such as network filled cavities and porous shells, the WCSs has stronger stress tolerance, and therefore can be better able to withstand structural deformation of SnOx nanoparticles; secondly, the outmost glucose derived carbon, as an anchoring coating, can not only prevent SnOx nanoparticles from aggregating but also pulverization; finally, the ultrafine SnOx nanoparticles have low absolute volume change and shortened ions and electrons transfer distances, and therefore possess improved electrochemical performance. As a result, with the combined effect of WCSs, ultrafine SnOx nanoparticles and outmost carbon coating, the as-constructed WCSs@SnOx@C exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances such as high capacity (853 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 after 400 cycles) and ultra-long lifespan (417 mAh g−1 at 1000 mA g−1 after even 1000 cycles).