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Real-time reservoir flood control operation for cascade reservoirs using a two-stage flood risk analysis method

Zhang, Xiaoqi, Liu, Pan, Xu, Chong-Yu, Gong, Yu, Cheng, Lei, He, Shaokun
Journal of hydrology 2019 v.577 pp. 123954
case studies, flood control, hydrograph, models, risk, risk management, summer, uncertainty, water power, China
The real-time operation of multi-reservoir systems is a vital issue in the field of reservoir management. The uncertainty caused by inflow forecasting means that risk analysis is necessary for such real-time operation. However, differences in the length of the forecast periods for different reservoirs in the system are seldom considered in the risk analysis of multi-reservoir systems. This paper presents a two-stage flood risk analysis method of multi-reservoir systems that takes the differences in the length of forecast lead-times into consideration. The aim of the proposed method is to evaluate the uncertainty of the flood forecasting by dividing the operation horizon into the forecast lead-time and the beyond-forecast time period. The risk within the forecast lead-time is estimated by counting the frequency of failure numbers among all scenarios with the help of the scenario-based forecasts. The risk beyond the forecast time period is determined using reservoir flood routing with the design flood hydrographs, which are selected according to the differences in the length of the forecast periods between any two reservoirs. The proposed two-stage risk analysis method is verified using stochastic simulations method based on Monte Carlo sampling. A real-time flood control operation model is established by taking the proposed two-stage risk analysis method as a constraint. China’s Ankang-Danjiangkou Cascade Reservoirs are considered as a case study, and the results indicate that the proposed real-time operation model can increase hydropower generation by 0.22 billion kWh during the summer flood season without increasing the flood risk in the multi-reservoir system. The proposed method enhances our understanding of risk management for the real-time flood control operations in multi-reservoir systems.