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Harmful effects of cocaine byproduct in the reproduction of sea urchin in different ocean acidification scenarios
- da Silva Souza, Lorena, Pusceddu, Fabio Hermes, Cortez, Fernando Sanzi, de Orte, Manoela Romano, Seabra, Alessandra Aloise, Cesar, Augusto, Ribeiro, Daniel Araki, Del Valls Casillas, Tomás Angel, Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra
- Chemosphere 2019 v.236 pp. 124284
- Echinometra lucunter, acidification, aquatic ecosystems, byproducts, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide enrichment, cocaine, developmental stages, drug toxicity, ecotoxicology, embryogenesis, hydrochloric acid, illicit drugs, median effective concentration, ocean acidification, pH, reproduction
- This study has as main objective assessing the toxicity of crack-cocaine combined with different scenarios of ocean acidification on fertilization rate and embryo-larval development of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin. Effects on early life stages were assessed at five different concentrations (6,25 mg.L−1; 12,5 mg.L−1; 25 mg.L−1; 50 mg.L−1 and 100 mg.L−1) of crack-cocaine at four different pH values (8.5; 8.0; 7.5; 7.0). The pH values were achieved using two different methodologies: adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) and injecting carbon dioxide (CO2). The fertilization test did not show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) compared with control sample at pH values 8.5; 8.0 and 7.5. Results of embryo-larval assays showed a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of crack-cocaine at pH values tested (8.5, 8.0, 7.5) as 58.83, 10.67 and 11.58 mg/L−1 for HCl acidification and 58.83, 23.28 and 12.57 mg/L−1 for CO2 enrichment. At pH 7.0 the effects observed in fertilization rate and embryo development were associated with the acidification. This study is the first ecotoxicological assessment of illicit drug toxicity in aquatic ecosystems at different ocean acidification scenarios.