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Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks of polyurethane/poly(2‑hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/cellulose nanowhisker scaffolds

Shahrousvand, Mohsen, Ghollasi, Marzieh, Zarchi, Ali Akbar Karimi, Salimi, Ali
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.138 pp. 262-271
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alkaline phosphatase, biodegradability, bone marrow, bone mineralization, calcium, cell proliferation, cellulose, condensation reactions, crosslinking, human cell lines, lactones, leaching, mesenchymal stromal cells, mineralization, nanocomposites, nanocrystals, polyhydroxyethyl methacrylates, polyurethanes, scanning electron microscopy, solvents, staining, tensile strength, toxicity testing, waste paper
Poly (2‑hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) was crosslinked in the presence of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(caprolactone) (PCL) based polyurethanes (PUs) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The CNWs were obtained from wastepaper. In order to crosslink PHEMA (10 wt%), a novel acrylic-urethane cross-linker was produced by a condensation reaction of PHEMA and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). The PU-PHEMA-CNWs scaffolds were prepared by solvent casting/particulate leaching method in different weight percentages of CNWs (i.e., 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt%). The structural, mechanical, and in vitro biological properties of bio-nanocomposites were evaluated via FTIR, SEM, tensile, and MTT assay. The tensile strength of PU-PHEMA-0, PU-PHEMA-0.1, PU-PHEMA-0.5, and PU-PHEMA-1 were 76.2, 95.8, 98.1, and 89.8 kPa, respectively. Incorporation of CNWs also resulted in improved cell proliferation on PU-PHEMA-CNWs scaffolds. The bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded on the prepared porous scaffolds and incubated in osteogenic medium. Based on the results including calcium content assay, alkaline phosphatase assay, and mineralization staining, PU-PHEMA-CNW scaffolds were introduced as a suitable election for imitating the behavior of cellular niche. Bone mineralization and osteogenesis differentiation of hMSCs on PU-PHEMA-CNW scaffolds were significantly more than control after 14 days.