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Separation detection of hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin fractions in blood using the electrochemical microfluidic channel with a conductive polymer composite sensor

Mozammal Hossain, M.D., Moon, Jong-Min, Gurudatt, N.G., Park, Deog-Su, Choi, Cheol Soo, Shim, Yoon-Bo
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.142 pp. 111515
biosensors, blood, blood sampling, carbon, catalytic activity, detection limit, electric field, electrochemistry, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin, humans, nanocomposites, polymers, toluidine blue
Separation and detection of hemoglobin (Hb) and glycated hemoglobin fractions (HbA1c, HbAld1+2, HbAle, HbAld3a, HbAla+b, HbA2, and HbAld3b) was performed using an electrochemical AC field modulated separation channel (EMSC) coupled with a sensor probe. The sensor was fabricated based on immobilization of a redox mediator on the poly(2,2′:5′,5″-terthiophene-3′-p-benzoic acid, pTTBA) and N,S-doped porous carbon (NSPC) nanocomposite. The different types of catalytic redox mediators such as Nile Blue (NB), toluidine blue O (TBO), and Neutral Red (NR) were evaluated to achieve the efficient detection. Of these, the NB-based sensor showed the best analytical signal for Hb and HbA1c, thus it was characterized using various electrochemical and surface analysis methods. After that, the sensor was coupled with the EMSC to achieve the separation detection of the Hb family. The frequency and amplitude of the AC electrical field applied onto the EMSC walls were the main driving forces for the separation and sensitive detection of the analytes. Under optimized conditions, linear dynamic ranges for Hb and HbA1c among their fractions were obtained between 1.0 × 10−6 to 3.5 mM and 3.0 × 10−6 to 0.6 mM with the detection limit of 8.1 × 10−7 ± 3.0 × 10−8 and 9.2 × 10−7 ± 5 × 10−8 mM, respectively. Interference effects of other biomolecules were also investigated and the clinical applicability of the device was evaluated by the determination of total Hb and % HbA1c in real human blood samples.