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The degradation behaviour, residue distribution, and dietary risk assessment of malathion on vegetables and fruits in China by GC-FPD

Liu, Yiping, Liu, Shuangqing, Zhang, Ya, Qin, Dongmei, Zheng, Zuntao, Zhu, Guangyan, Lv, Yuntao, Liu, Zhaoqing, Dong, Zhe, Liao, Xiaolan, Li, Xiaogang
Food control 2020 v.107 pp. 106754
average daily intake, broccoli, cherry tomatoes, cranberries, crops, dietary exposure, field experimentation, figs, food intake, fruits, gas chromatography, half life, insecticide residues, malathion, maximum residue limits, monitoring, mulberries, nutrition risk assessment, photometry, standard deviation, China
The gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to detect malathion residues content in vegetables (cherry tomatoes and broccoli) and fruits (mulberries, cranberries, and figs). The recoveries of samples were 76.2 ± 3.5%–103.9 ± 3.6% at a spike level of 0.01–10 mg/kg, the relative standard deviation (RSDs) were 2.1%–7.3%, and the limit of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01–0.02 mg/kg. On the basis of the normative field trials, the degradation half-life of malathion were 1.10–2.15 days, which indicated that malathion degrades quickly. The final distribution of malathion residues in various vegetables and fruits varied from <0.01 to 0.58 mg/kg. The long-term dietary risk assessment results showed that the national estimated daily intake (NEDI) of malathion in various populations of China ranged from 0.000021 to 0.000549 mg/kg bw, and the risk quotient (RQ) ranged from 0.007% to 0.183% and were less than 100%, which indicated that malathion has a low risk for long-term dietary intake these crops. The maximum residual limits (MRLs) of malathion can be set as 1 mg/kg for cherry tomatoes, broccoli, mulberries, cranberries, and 0.2 mg/kg for figs, respectively. These results would be considered as important references for monitoring and assessing the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health.