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Characterization of the adenosinergic system in a zebrafish embryo radiotherapy model

Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes, Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão, Altenhofen, Stefani, da Costa, Kesiane Mayra, Bogo, Maurício Reis, Bonan, Carla Denise, Morrone, Fernanda Bueno
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.224 pp. 108572
Danio rerio, adenosine, adenosine deaminase, adverse effects, embryo (animal), enzyme activity, gamma radiation, gene expression, hatching, heart rate, immune response, inflammation, irradiation, locomotion, metabolism, models, neoplasm progression, neoplasms, purinergic receptors, radiotherapy, toxicity
Adenosine is a nucleoside that acts as a signaling molecule by activating P1 purinergic receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3). This activation is involved in immune responses, inflammation, and tissue remodeling and tumor progression. Gamma rays are a type of ionizing radiation widely adopted in radiotherapy of tumors. Although it brings benefits to the success of the therapeutic scheme, it can trigger cellular damages, inducing a perpetual inflammatory response that culminates in adverse effects and severe toxicity. Our study aims to characterize the adenosinergic system in a zebrafish embryo radiotherapy model, relating the adenosine signaling to the changes elicited by radiation exposure. To standardize the radiotherapy procedure, we established a toxicological profile after exposure. Zebrafish were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy) at 24 hpf. Survival, hatching rate, heartbeats, locomotor activity and morphological changes were determined during embryos development. Although without significant difference in survival, gamma-irradiated embryos had their heartbeats increased and presented decreased hatching time, changes in locomotor activity and important morphological alterations. The exposure to 10 Gy disrupted the ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase/ADA enzymatic activity, impairing adenosine metabolism. We also demonstrated that radiation decreased A2B receptor gene expression, suggesting the involvement of extracellular adenosine in the changes prompted by radiotherapy. Our results indicate that the components of the adenosinergic system may be potential targets to improve radiotherapy and manage the tissue damage and toxicity of ionizing radiation.