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Proteome and metabolome analyses reveal differential responses in tomato -Verticillium dahliae-interactions
- Hu, Xiaoping, Puri, Krishna D., Gurung, Suraj, Klosterman, Steven J., Wallis, Christopher M., Britton, Monica, Durbin-Johnson, Blythe, Phinney, Brett, Salemi, Michelle, Short, Dylan P.G., Subbarao, Krishna V.
- Journal of proteomics 2019 v.207 pp. 103449
- Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, Verticillium dahliae, annuals, biosynthesis, carbohydrates, catechol oxidase, cell walls, crop losses, cultivars, death, defense mechanisms, discoloration, fungi, gene ontology, gene overexpression, host plants, leaves, lignin, metabolites, metabolome, methylation, pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogens, phenolic compounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, plant extracts, proteome, proteomics, races, roots, stems, tomatoes, wilting
- Verticillium dahliae colonizes vascular tissue and causes vascular discoloration in susceptible hosts. Two well-defined races exist in V. dahliae populations from tomato and lettuce. In this study, proteins and metabolites obtained from stems of race 1-incompatible (Beefsteak) and -compatible (Early Pak) tomato cultivars were characterized. A total of 814 and 584 proteins in Beefsteak; and 456 and 637 proteins in Early Pak were identified in stem extracts of plants inoculated with races 1 and 2, respectively. A significant number of defense-related proteins were expressed in each tomato-V. dahliae interaction, as anticipated. However, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), an important defense-associated enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, in addition to remorin 1, NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase, and polyphenol oxidase were uniquely expressed in the incompatible interaction. Compared with the uninoculated control, significant overexpression of gene ontology terms associated with lignin biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid pathway and carbohydrate methylation were identified exclusively in the incompatible interaction. Phenolic compounds known to be involved in plant defense mechanisms were at higher levels in the incompatible relative to the compatible interactions. Based on our findings, PAL and enzymes involved defense-related secondary metabolism and the strengthening of cell walls is likely critical to confer resistance to race 1 of V. dahliae in tomato.Verticillium dahliae, a soilborne fungal pathogen and a widely distributed fungal pathogen, colonizes vascular tissue and causes vascular discoloration in roots and stems, leaf wilting, and death of susceptible plant hosts. It causes billions of dollars in annual crop losses all over the world. The study focused on the proteomic and metabalomic of V. dahliae interactions (incompatible with Beefsteak and compatible with Early Pak tomato cultivars). Based on our findings, PAL and enzymes involved defense-related secondary metabolism and the strengthening of cell walls is likely critical to confer resistance to race 1 of V. dahliae in tomato.