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Effects of substituting refined wheat flour with wholemeal and quinoa flour on the technological and sensory characteristics of salt-reduced breads

Gostin, A.I.
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.114 pp. 108412
enthalpy, fiber content, gluten-free bread, hardness, markets, quinoa flour, retrogradation, salt content, sensory properties, starch, table salt, water content, wheat, wheat flour
Bread is a contributor to high dietary salt intake. Six bread formulations were developed from wheat (white and wholemeal) and quinoa flour with reduced salt content (0.6 g/100 g) and their technological and sensory properties compared. The quinoa flour samples were characterised by low setback, breakdown ratio and retrogradation enthalpies. Breads produced herewith had hard textures, decreased specific volume, low number of cells and small cell volume. For wheat-containing breads a higher flour fibre content decreased number of cells and specific volume, and increased crumb hardness. Breads with increased specific volume were characterised by reduced hardening rate and extent of staling, whilst the gluten-free breads had a faster firming rate. The rate of hardening was observed to be strongly negatively correlated (−0.841) with the enthalpy of retrogradation after 3 d storage when a drop in the breads moisture content was measured and most of starch retrogradation occurred. When compared to the control white flour breads, the quinoa flour breads were perceived as twice as salty and six times bitterer. Substituting white flour with 10 g/100 g quinoa flour produced breads with properties similar to the white wheat breads, highlighting their potential in the bakery market.