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Survey on Natural Enemies of White Grub Larvae, Polyphylla adspersa (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) from Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran

Karimi, Javad, Alvadni, Jamileh, Moravej, Gholam Hossein
Entomological news 2019 v.128 no.4 pp. 410-426
Beauveria bassiana, Gregarina, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Megaselia scalaris, Metarhizium anisopliae, Oxyurida, Polyphylla, Tachinidae, biological control, crops, ectoparasites, endoparasitoids, entomopathogenic fungi, insects, larvae, natural enemies, surveys, trees, Iran
Polyphylla adspersa Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) is the key white grub species in the Eastern part of Iran. Due to increasing concerns about its damage on different tree and crop species, addressing environmentally friendly management tactics including biological control has top priority. Here, we report new natural enemies of the white grub larvae in Razavi Khorasan province, North East Iran. The most prevalent natural enemies were entomopathogenic fungi including, Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). A parasitic nematode, Cephalobellus sp. (Oxyurida: Thelasto matidae) as well an insect pathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) were collected as natural entomopathogens. Among protistans, two species of eugregarines, Stictospora sp. and Gregarina sp. were found as coelomic parasites infecting the larvae. A tachinid fly, Micro phthalma europaea (Diptera: Tachinidae) was identified as a koinobiont endoparasitoid of the larva and a humpbacked fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) recognized as an ectoparasite. All records are presented as first associations with the P. adspersa. New information about all newly recorded taxa is provided here. This information is useful for designing future biological control programs.