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Teff consumption and anemia in pregnant Ethiopian women: a case–control study

Mohammed, Shimels Hussien, Taye, Hailu, Sissay, Tesfamichael Awoke, Larijani, Bagher, Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
European journal of nutrition 2019 v.58 no.5 pp. 2011-2018
Eragrostis tef, anemia, case-control studies, confidence interval, food frequency questionnaires, odds ratio, pregnant women, regression analysis, Ethiopia
PURPOSE: Teff, an iron-rich staple grain in Ethiopia, is consumed mainly in the form of teff injera (TI). Studies on the association of TI consumption with anemia are limited. We aimed to determine the association of frequencies of TI consumption with anemia, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case–control study involving 592 pregnant women: 187 anemic cases, and 405 non-anemic controls. TI consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multiple logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and non-dietary covariates, was performed to determine the relation of TI consumption to anemia status. RESULTS: We found that a decrease in frequency of TI consumption was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of anemia (p-trend = 0.009). Compared with everyday TI consumption, the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of anemia associated with the other frequencies of teff consumption were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71, 3.23; p = 0.285] for every other day, 2.13 (95% CI 1.03, 4.41; p = 0.04) for 1–2 times a week, and 3.17 (95% CI 1.62, 6.22; p < 0.001) for once in 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Teff consumption was associated with reduced odds of anemia in pregnant women. Further studies are warranted, including determining the feasibility and effectiveness of TI use for anemia prevention. REGISTRATION: The study was registered as .