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Amelioration of toxicopathological effects of cadmium with silymarin and milk thistle in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif, Tahir, Muhammad Waseem, Abbas, Rao Zahid, Akhtar, Masood, Ali, Aamir, Javed, Muhammad Tariq, Fatima, Zahida, Zubair, Muhammad, Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed, Zahoor Ul Hassan,
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.21 pp. 21371-21380
Coturnix japonica, Silybum marianum, active ingredients, antioxidants, body weight, cadmium, cadmium chloride, heavy metals, histopathology, liver, males, mortality, quails, seeds, seminiferous tubules, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), silymarin, spermatogenesis, spermatozoa
Cadmium is an important widely distributed heavy metal in the environment due to its several industrial uses, while milk thistle is an important herb and is a source of several antioxidant particularly silymarin which is a pharmacological active substance present in seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). The current study investigated pathological effects of cadmium (Cd) and their amelioration with silymarin (SL) and milk thistle (MT) quails. A total of 144 quails were equally divided into 9 groups and given different combinations of cadmium chloride (150 and 300 mg/kg feed), SL (250 mg/kg), and MT (10 g/kg) feed. Parameters studied were clinical signs, mortality, organ weights, testes weight and volume, and gross and microscopic pathology. Results of this study indicated an increased mortality and reduced body weight in cadmium-treated quails. Quails were dull, depressed compared with control. Swollen hemorrhagic liver along with atrophied testes were also observed in these groups. No active spermatozoa were observed in lumen of seminiferous tubules of Cd-treated birds presenting arrest of spermatogenesis. Supplementing MT and SL ameliorated mortality, organ weights, spermatogenesis, and histopathological lesions. It may be concluded that MT and SL proved beneficial in cadmium-induced toxicities in Japanese quails.