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Removing toxic contaminants from groundwater by graphene oxide nanocomposite in a membrane module under response surface optimization
- Pal, M., Chakrabortty, S., Nayak, J., Pal, P.
- International journal of environmental science and technology 2019 v.16 no.8 pp. 4583-4594
- arsenic, calcium, decontamination, drinking water, fluorides, graphene oxide, groundwater, groundwater contamination, iron, magnesium, minerals, nanocomposites, pH, total suspended solids, toxicity
- A novel graphene oxide nanocomposite was investigated in a flat membrane module with cross-flow pattern for decontamination of water on optimization of the operating conditions. Response surface optimization methodology was followed in arriving at the best operating conditions. The best module performance in terms of flux and rejection was obtained at the optimum set of operating conditions comprising a pH of 8.0, operating pressure of 14 bars and an hourly cross-flow of 800 L. At the end of a 96-h run, the observed drop in flux was a negligible 3.4%. On rinsing and backwashing at the end of this period, the net drop could be limited to within 2%. The module succeeded in selectively removing 98.5% of arsenic, 96.7% of fluoride, 96–97% of iron and suspended solids from contaminated groundwater while permeating more than 79–81% of the useful calcium and 87–90% of magnesium minerals as desired in potable water. The study shows that if run under properly optimized conditions, a flat membrane module with cross-flow pattern and equipped with the graphene oxide nanocomposite can be a potential technology in producing healthy, tasty and non-toxic drinking water from contaminated groundwater even in the remote areas.