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Mannan oligosaccharides trigger multiple defence responses in rice and tobacco as a novel danger‐associated molecular pattern

Zang, Haoyu, Xie, Shanshan, Zhu, Bichun, Yang, Xue, Gu, Chunyan, Hu, Benjin, Gao, Tongchun, Chen, Yu, Gao, Xuewen
Molecular plant pathology 2019 v.20 no.8 pp. 1067-1079
Oryza sativa, Phytophthora nicotianae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, calcium, cell death, elicitors, gene expression regulation, hydrolysis, lactones, leaves, liquid chromatography, locust bean gum, mass spectrometry, mitogen-activated protein kinase, oligosaccharides, pathogenesis-related proteins, phytoalexins, polymerization, reactive oxygen species, rice, salicylic acid, seedlings, signal transduction, stomata, tobacco, transcription (genetics)
Oligosaccharide, a typical danger‐associated molecular pattern (DAMP), has been studied and applied as plant defence elicitor for several years. Here, we report a novel oligosaccharide, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) with a degree of polymerization of 2–6, which was hydrolysed from locust bean gum by a newly reported enzyme, BpMan5. The MOS treatment can significantly enhance the generation of signalling molecules such as intracellular Ca²⁺ and reactive oxygen species. Subsequent defence events like stomata closure and cell death were also caused by MOS, eventually leading to the prevention of pathogen invasion or expansion. Transcriptional expression assay indicated that MOS activated mitogen‐activated protein kinase cascades in tobacco and rice via different cascading pathways. The expression levels of the defence‐related genes PR‐1a and LOX were both up‐regulated after MOS treatment, suggesting that MOS may simultaneously activate salicylic acid and jasmonic acid‐dependent signalling pathways. Furthermore, liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis showed that MOS led to the accumulation of four phytoalexins (momilactone A, phytocassane A, phytocassane D, and phytocassane E) in rice seedling leaves within 12–24 h. Finally, MOS conferred resistance in rice and tobacco against Xanthomonas oryzae and Phytophthora nicotianae, respectively. Taken together, our results indicated that MOS, a novel DAMP, could trigger multiple defence responses to prime plant resistance and has a great potential as plant defence elicitor for the management of plant disease.