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Embryonic exposure to soil samples from a gangue stacking area induces thyroid hormone disruption in zebrafish

Yang, Fenglong, Li, Guangke, Sang, Nan
Chemosphere 2019 v.236 pp. 124337
Danio rerio, abnormal development, body length, coal, developmental toxicity, dose response, embryo (animal), endocrine system, energy, genes, hatching, heart rate, homeostasis, larvae, leachates, mining, models, mortality, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk, soil, soil sampling, triiodothyronine, villages, China
The total accumulative stockpiles of gangue from long-term coal mining exceed 1 billion tons and occupy 182 square kilometers, and 50 million tons of additional gangue are generated per year in Shanxi, a major energy province in China. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposure to village soils affected by gangue stacking would disrupt thyroid hormone system homeostasis and eventually affect endocrine system and development, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism. The zebrafish embryos were exposed to village soil leachates at 0, 1:9, 1:3 and 1:1 from 1 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and the sample caused a dose-dependent increase in the mortality and malformation rate, and decrease in the heart rate, hatching rate and body length of zebrafish larvae. Importantly, the soil leachate alleviated the whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels at higher concentrations, and altered the expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis-regulating genes crh, trh, tshβ, nis, tg, nkx2.1, pax8, hhex, ttr, dio1, dio2, ugt1ab, trα, and trβ and the PAH exposure-related genes ahr2 and cyp1a. These findings highlight the potential risk of thyroid hormone disruption and developmental toxicity from soil samples around coal gangue stacking areas.