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Removal of nonylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate from water and anaerobically digested sewage sludge by Ferrate(VI)

Limmun, Warunee, Ito, Ayumi, Ishikawa, Nao, Momotori, Jin, Kawamura, Yumi, Majima, Yu, Sasamoto, Makoto, Umita, Teruyuki
Chemosphere 2019 v.236 pp. 124399
fertilizers, iron, nonylphenols, organic matter, oxidants, pH, potassium, sewage sludge, soil conditioners, toxicity, wastewater treatment
Nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) have toxic and persistent characteristics, and are incompletely degraded in conventional wastewater treatment processes. These compounds are present in sewage sludge that can be reused as fertilizers or soil conditioners. Accordingly, NP and NP1EO should be properly removed before being discharged in the environment. In this study, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) containing hexavalent iron (Fe(VI)) was used as an environment-friendly oxidizing agent to mediate NP and NP1EO degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pH and Fe(VI) dosage on the degradation of NP and NP1EO in water and anaerobically digested sewage sludge samples. In water samples, under conditions examined in this study, maximum removal efficiencies for NP and NP1EO were 98% and 92%, respectively. For digested sewage sludge samples, the maximum removal efficiencies of NP and NP1EO were 58% and 96%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Fe(VI) can potentially degrade NP and NP1EO in water and digested sewage sludge samples. However, organic matter as a matrix in the sludge sample would inhibit the degradation of NP and NP1EO by Fe(VI). The pH values before and after adding K2FeO4 to the samples had an obvious influence on the removal of NP and NP1EO.