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miR-146a promotes Borna disease virus 1 replication through IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-κB signaling pathway

Zhang, Xiong, Guo, Yujie, Xu, Xiaoyan, Tang, Tian, Sun, Lin, Wang, Haiyang, Zhou, Wei, Fang, Liang, Li, Qi, Xie, Peng
Virus research 2019 v.271 pp. 197671
3' untranslated regions, Borna disease virus, Western blotting, binding sites, central nervous system, computer software, databases, genes, humans, immune response, inflammation, innate immunity, luciferase, microRNA, neonates, neuroglia, neurons, protein synthesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, signal transduction, transcription factor NF-kappa B, virus replication
: Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus that is highly neurotropic. BoDV-1 infection can damage the central nervous system and cause inflammation. To survive in host cells, BoDV-1 must evade the host innate immune response. A previous study showed that miR-146a expression increased in neonatal rats infected with BoDV-1. miR-146a is a microRNA suggested to negatively regulate innate immune and inflammatory responses and antiviral pathways. Many groups have reported that its overexpression facilitates viral replication. However, it is unclear whether miR-146a is involved in escape from the host immune response during BoDV-1 infection.: In this study, BoDV-1 was used to infect neonatal rats within 24 h of birth intracranially, as well as to infect human microglial cells (HMC3). miR-146a expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR. The TargetScanHuman database was used to find the target genes of miR-146a. A search of the binding sites of miR-146a and its target gene’s 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) was also performed using RNAhybrid software. The binding sites of miR-146a and the target gene’s 3′UTR were detected by dual luciferase reporter assays. Overexpression and suppression studies of miR-146a were performed to determine its effect on BoDV-1 replication. The relative protein expression of members of the IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-κB signaling pathway was also evaluated by western blotting in HMC3.: After BoDV-1 infection of neurons in vivo and of HMC3 cells, miR-146a expression was significantly upregulated. miR-146a overexpression in HMC3 cells promoted viral replication, while its inhibition inhibited it. Through the TargetScanHuman database, we identified the target genes of anti-inflammatory miR-146a: IRAK1 and TRAF6. We also found that BoDV-1 could inhibit IRAK1 and TRAF6 expression in HMC3 cells. Moreover, we showed that the inhibition of IRAK1 and TRAF6 also led to decreases in the expression of P65 and phosphorylated P65 in the downstream NF-κB pathway. Subsequently, we confirmed the interaction of miR-146a with IRAK1 and TRAF6 by luciferase assay.: Our results suggest that miR-146a inhibits the IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-κB signaling pathway to facilitate BoDV-1 survival in host cells.