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Tetrabromobisphenol A: Disposition, kinetics and toxicity in animals and humans
- Yu, Yunjiang, Yu, Ziling, Chen, Haibo, Han, Yajing, Xiang, Mingdeng, Chen, Xichao, Ma, Ruixue, Wang, Zhengdong
- Environmental pollution 2019 v.253 pp. 909-917
- acute toxicity, bioavailability, breast milk, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, feces, fetus, flame retardants, hepatotoxicity, human health, humans, immunotoxicity, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, maternal exposure, metabolism, metabolites, mitochondria, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, products and commodities, pups, rats, reactive oxygen species, risk, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, tissues, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, wildlife
- Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a nonregulated brominated flame retardant with a high production volume, and it is applied in a wide variety of consumer products. TBBPA is ubiquitous in abiotic matrices, wildlife and humans around the world. This paper critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the disposition, metabolism or kinetics and toxicity of TBBPA in animals and humans. TBBPA is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed among tissues, and is excreted primarily in the feces. In rats, TBBPA and its metabolites have limited systemic bioavailability. TBBPA has been detected in human milk in the general population. It is available to both the developing fetus and the nursing pups following maternal exposure. It has been suggested that TBBPA causes acute toxicity, endocrine disruptor activity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity in animals. Cell-based assays have shown that TBBPA can induce reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner, and it promotes the production of inflammatory factors such as TNF α, IL-6, and IL-8. Cells exposed to high levels of TBBPA exhibit seriously injured mitochondria and a dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This review will enhance the understanding of the potential risks of TBBPA exposure to ecological and human health.