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Macronutrients and trace elements in enteral nutrition formulas: Compliance with label, bioaccessibility and contribution to reference intakes through a probabilistic assessment

Iturbide-Casas, Mª.A., Molina-Recio, G., Cámara-Martos, F.
Subtropical plant science 2019 v.83 pp. 103250
Dietary Reference Intakes, bioavailability, calcium, compliance, copper, enteral feeding, iron, lipid content, magnesium, manganese, probability analysis, protein content, synergism, zinc
Ten enteral nutrition formulas were analyzed to determine their macro and micronutrient (trace element) composition. Protein and fat content ranged between 3.7–8.0 and 1.3–11.9 g / 100 mL respectively. Trace element concentrations ranged between 7.2–15; 2.0–6.8; 0.6–1.6; 1.1–1.5; 0.2 – 0.3; 0.3–1.7 mg / 100 mL for Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn respectively; revealing that in many cases they do not match the label values. Trace element bioaccessibility analysis showed dialyzability percentages between 2–16 %. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between protein content and dialyzed Mg content (r = -0.644, p < 0.05); and between protein content and dialyzed Fe content (r = -0.679, p < 0.05). In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.801; p < 0.05) was found between dialyzable Ca and dialyzable Mg, displaying a synergistic interaction between both elements. Finally, a probabilistic assessment showed that the analyzed enteral nutritional formulas meet the Dietary Reference Intakes of all micronutrients assessed.