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A novel defective recombinant porcine enterovirus G virus carrying a porcine torovirus papain-like cysteine protease gene and a putative anti-apoptosis gene in place of viral structural protein genes
- Imai, Ryo, Nagai, Makoto, Oba, Mami, Sakaguchi, Shoichi, Ujike, Makoto, Kimura, Ruka, Kida, Moeko, Masuda, Tsuneyuki, Kuroda, Moegi, Wen, Rongduo, Li, Kaixin, Katayama, Yukie, Naoi, Yuki, Tsuchiaka, Shinobu, Omatsu, Tsutomu, Yamazato, Hiroshi, Makino, Shinji, Mizutani, Tetsuya
- Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 pp. 103975
- Enterovirus G, Porcine enterovirus, Porcine torovirus, amino acid sequences, apoptosis, cysteine proteinases, farms, feces, helper viruses, phylogeny, sequence homology, structural genes, structural proteins, swine, Belgium, Japan, United States
- Enterovirus G (EV-G) belongs to the family of Picornaviridae. Two types of recombinant porcine EV-Gs carrying papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) gene of porcine torovirus, a virus in Coronaviridae, are reported. Type 1 recombinant EV-Gs are detected in pig feces in Japan, USA, and Belgium and carry the PLPC gene at the junction site of 2C/3A genes, while PLPC gene replaces the viral structural genes in type 2 recombinant EV-G detected in pig feces in a Chinese farm. We identified a novel type 2 recombinant EV-G carrying the PLCP gene with flanking sequences in place of the viral structural genes in pig feces in Japan. The ~0.3 kb-long upstream flanking sequence had no sequence homology with any proteins deposited in GenBank, while the downstream ~0.9 kb-long flanking sequence included a domain having high amino acid sequence homology with a baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat superfamily. The pig feces, where the novel type 2 recombinant EV-G was detected, also carried type 1 recombinant EV-G. The amount of type 1 and type 2 recombinant EV-G genomes was almost same in the pig feces. Although the phylogenetic analysis suggested that these two recombinant EV-Gs have independently evolved, type 1 recombinant EV-G might have served as a helper virus by providing viral structural proteins for dissemination of the type 2 recombinant EV-G.