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Apple pomace improves liver and adipose inflammatory and antioxidant status in young female rats consuming a Western diet

Skinner, R. Chris, Warren, Derek C., Naveed, Minahal, Agarwal, Garima, Benedito, Vagner A., Tou, Janet C.
Journal of functional foods 2019 v.61 pp. 103471
Western diets, adipose tissue, antioxidants, apple pomace, apples, byproducts, cytokines, fatty acid composition, fatty liver, females, functional foods, gene expression, gene expression regulation, histology, inflammation, laboratory animals, liver, monounsaturated fatty acids, rats
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is diet-driven and characterized by inflammation and alterations in liver-adipose fatty acid transport. Diet modification is the main treatment for NASH, with high antioxidant diets suggested. Apple pomace, an antioxidant-rich apple processing “waste” byproduct, has potential as a functional food in alleviating NASH. To investigate apple pomace and NASH, growing female Sprague-Dawley rats consumed one of four diets for 8 weeks: AIN-93G, AIN-93G/10% g/kg caloric substitution with apple pomace (AIN/AP), Western diet, or Western/10% apple pomace (Western/AP). Apple pomace substitution decreased Western-diet induced hepatic histological evidence of inflammation and positively influenced liver and adipose tissue saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content. Further, rats consuming Western/AP had downregulated hepatic and adipose proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and improved antioxidant status compared to rats consuming a Western diet. Based on the results, apple pomace attenuated features of Western diet-induced NASH and supports apple pomace use as a sustainable functional food.