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Estimation of Energy Intake by a Food Frequency Questionnaire: Calibration and Validation with the Doubly Labeled Water Method in Japanese Older People

Watanabe, Daiki, Nanri, Hinako, Sagayama, Hiroyuki, Yoshida, Tsukasa, Itoi, Aya, Yamaguchi, Miwa, Yokoyama, Keiichi, Watanabe, Yuya, Goto, Chiho, Ebine, Naoyuki, Higaki, Yasuki, Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko, Kimura, Misaka, Yamada, Yosuke, Kyoto-Kameoka Study Group,
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.7
body mass index, elderly, energy expenditure, energy intake, equations, food frequency questionnaires, men, nutritional status, women
Accurate assessments of a target population&rsquo;s energy intake (EI) are essential to prevent poor nutritional status. However, self-reported dietary records (DRs) or food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are not always accurate, thereby requiring validation and calibration studies. This study aimed to validate the EI estimated by a FFQ using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Participants were 109 Japanese older adults (50 women and 59 men) aged 65&ndash;88 years. The EI was obtained by a DR and 47-item FFQ over 1 year. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by DLW for ~2 weeks. EI was significantly lower than TEE (p < 0.01); ratios of EI assessed by DR and FFQ against TEE were 0.91 &plusmn; 0.17 and 0.82 &plusmn; 0.22, respectively. TEE was significantly and moderately correlated with the EI estimated by the DR (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and FFQ (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the EI correlation coefficients estimated by DR and the FFQ in this study were not significantly different (p = 0.46). The EI/TEE ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with the body mass index (BMI). In conclusion, EI estimated with a DR or FFQ modestly correlated with TEE, and calibrating EI with a developed equation in this study can attenuate the underestimation of EI.