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Wheat Flour, Enriched with γ-Oryzanol, Phytosterol, and Ferulic Acid, Alleviates Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat-Fructose-Fed Rats
- Guo, Xiao-Xuan, Zeng, Zhu, Qian, Yong-Zhong, Qiu, Jing, Wang, Kai, Wang, Yong, Ji, Bao-Ping, Zhou, Feng
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.7
- Western blotting, body weight, diet, eating habits, ferulic acid, fructose, functional foods, glucose, health promotion, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, in vitro studies, in vivo studies, insulin resistance, liver, males, metabolism, oryzanol, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylation, phytosterols, proteins, rats, wheat flour
- (1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats.