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N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Long-Term Diabetic Risk of Offspring of Gestational Diabetes Rats by Postponing Shortening of Hepatic Telomeres and Modulating Liver Metabolism
- Gao, Jinlong, Xiao, Hailong, Li, Jiaomei, Guo, Xiaofei, Cai, Wenwen, Li, Duo
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.7
- alpha-linolenic acid, biochemical pathways, ceramides, diet, fish oils, gestational diabetes, glucose, inflammation, insulin resistance, liver, metabolism, metabolites, metabolomics, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, oxaloacetic acid, oxidative stress, palmitic acid, progeny, rats, safflower oil, soybean oil, telomeres, tocotrienols, weaning
- The long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on GDM offspring are poorly understood. We studied the long-term diabetic risk in GDM offspring and evaluated the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention. Healthy offspring rats were fed standard diet (soybean oil) after weaning. GDM offspring were divided into three groups: GDM offspring (soybean oil), n-3 PUFA adequate offspring (fish oil), and n-3 PUFA deficient offspring (safflower oil), fed up to 11 months old. The diabetic risk of GDM offspring gradually increased from no change at weaning to obvious impaired glucose and insulin tolerance at 11 months old. N-3 PUFA decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of older GDM offspring. There was a differential effect of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA on hepatic telomere length in GDM offspring. Non-targeted metabolomics showed that n-3 PUFA played a modulating role in the liver, in which numerous metabolites and metabolic pathways were altered when GDM offspring grew to old age. Many metabolites were related to diabetes risk, such as α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, ceramide, oxaloacetic acid, tocotrienol, tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol, andniacinamide. In summary, GDM offspring exhibited obvious diabetes risk at old age, whereas n-3 PUFA decreased this risk.