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Role of Hypovitaminosis D in the Pathogenesis of Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

Greco, Emanuela A., Lenzi, Andrea, Migliaccio, Silvia
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.7
adipogenesis, adipose tissue, adiposity, epidemiological studies, glucose, glycemic control, homeostasis, immune system, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, lipophilicity, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity, pathogenesis, vitamin D, vitamin D deficiency
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have both rapidly increased during the last decades and are continuing to increase at an alarming rate worldwide. Obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis are closely related, and during the last decades of investigation about vitamin D, several clinical and epidemiological studies documented an inverse correlation between circulating vitamin D levels, central adiposity and the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The insufficient sun exposure and outdoor activities of obese individuals, the storage of vitamin D in adipose tissue, because of its lipophilic properties, and the vitamin D-mediated modulation of adipogenesis, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and the immune system, are the main reasons for the close relationship between obesity, glucose homeostasis and hypovitaminosis D. Then objective of this review is to explore the pathophysiological mechanism(s) by which vitamin D modulates glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in obese individuals.