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Prevalence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on dairy cattle farms in Jordan

Obaidat, Mohammad M., Stringer, Andrew P.
Journal of dairy science 2019 v.102 no.10 pp. 8710-8720
Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, ampicillin, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, bulk milk, cephalothin, clindamycin, dairy cattle, dairy farming, erythromycin, farms, feces, kanamycin, linezolid, multiple drug resistance, nalidixic acid, pathogens, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, selection pressure, streptomycin, tetracycline, vancomycin, Jordan
This study determined the prevalence, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, and antimicrobial resistance profile of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from dairy cattle farms in Jordan. Samples from bulk tank milk (n = 305), cattle feces (n = 610), and rectoanal mucosal swabs (n = 610) were collected from 61 dairy cattle farms. We confirmed 32 L. monocytogenes, 28 S. enterica, and 24 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the samples. The farm-level prevalence (at least 1 positive sample per farm) of L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and E. coli O157:H7 was 27.9, 19.7, and 23.0%, respectively. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and E. coli O157:H7 in bulk tank milk was 7.5, 1.6, and 3.3%, respectively. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica in fecal samples was 1.5 and 3.8%, respectively, and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in rectoanal mucosal swabs was 2.3%. Based on disk diffusion testing, all L. monocytogenes, S. enterica, and E. coli O157:H7 isolates exhibited resistance to at least 1 antimicrobial class. Multidrug resistance (resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials) was exhibited by 96.9% of L. monocytogenes, 91.7% of E. coli O157:H7, and 82.1% of S. enterica isolates. Moreover, 93.8, 79.2, and 57.1% of the L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enterica isolates, respectively, were resistant to 5 or more antimicrobial classes. More than 50% of L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, penicillin, erythromycin, quinupristin–dalfopristin, streptomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, vancomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. More than 50% of S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, streptomycin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and tetracycline. The prevalence of the studied pathogens this study was comparable to reports from other countries. The isolated pathogens exhibited a high degree of antimicrobial resistance, suggesting that the bacterial flora of dairy cattle in Jordan are under intense antimicrobial selection pressure. Additional research is required to determine the causes and drivers of resistance, and to develop approaches to mitigating antimicrobial resistance.