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A review of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs): occurrence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and organism exposure

Du, Jia, Li, Huanxuan, Xu, Shaodan, Zhou, Qingwei, Jin, Meiqing, Tang, Junhong
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.22 pp. 22126-22136
absorption, adverse effects, bioaccumulation, environmental assessment, flame retardants, humans, in vivo studies, risk assessment, toxicity
Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are increasingly being applied as flame retardants due to their unique properties. OPFRs are commonly detected in various environmental matrices, and organisms are extensively exposed to them. Considering the adverse effects of OPFRs, many researchers have devoted their attention to environmental risk assessments. This review outlines the current knowledge regarding the toxicity of OPFRs based on both in vitro and in vivo experiments in various environmentally relevant test species. The production, absorption, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of OPFRs in animals and humans are also described. The joint effects of OPFRs and their coexisting characteristics are also discussed based on the limited available data and results. Finally, knowledge gaps and perspectives for future exposure studies of OPFRs in animals and humans are identified.