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Recent trends in CRISPR-Cas system: genome, epigenome, and transcriptome editing and CRISPR delivery systems

Bae, Taegeun, Hur, Junseok W., Kim, Dokyoung, Hur, Junho K.
Genes & genomics 2019 v.41 no.8 pp. 871-877
CRISPR-Cas systems, RNA, RNA editing, biotechnology, gene editing, genome, nanotechnology, transcription (genetics), transcriptome
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR-Cas systems have emerged as a robust genome editing tool useful in various fields of research. With the discovery and development of the orthologous CRISPR-Cas systems, their genome editing efficiency have improved. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we aim to present the recent developments and applications of the CRISPR-Cas systems. METHODS: First, we introduce how the advancements of CRISPR technology enabled genome editing to single base precision. Then, we discuss the CRISPR based methods for targeted transcriptional regulation, epigenome editing, and RNA editing. Finally, we review the CRISPR delivery systems highlighting recent attempts to integrate nanotechnology to develop novel CRISPR delivery modalities. CONCLUSION: Here, we review the recent trends in CRISPR-based biotechnologies, encompassing genome editing, epigenome regulation and direct RNA targeting and provide an overview of methods employed for CRISPR delivery with an emphasis on the most recent nanotechnology-based delivery strategies. We anticipate that the development of CRISPR based technology will continue to explore novel methods.